HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS (Continued)
Definitions of Hazard Chemical
Asbestosis is a scarring of the lung tissue caused by asbestos fibers accumulating in the lungs. This scarring impairs the elasticity of the lung and hampers its ability to exchange gases. This leads to inadequate oxygen intake to the blood. Asbestosis restricts breathing leading to decreased lung volume and increased resistance in the airways. It is a slowly progressive disease with a latency period of 15 to 30 years.
Black Lung is a disease caused by continued exposure to excessive amounts of respirable coalmine dust. This dust becomes trapped in the lungs, causing them to harden, which makes breathing very difficult.
Carcinogen commonly describes any agent that can initiate or speed the development of malignant or potentially malignant tumors, malignant neoplastic proliferation of cells, or cells that possess such material.
Combustible Liquid is a term used to classify certain liquids that will burn, on the basis of flash points. Defined as having a flash point of 100F or higher. They do not ignite as easily as flammable liquids; however, they can be ignited under certain conditions, and must be handled with caution.
Compressed Gas is a material contained under pressure (dissolved gas, liquefied by compression or refrigeration).
Contact with Body Opening is when chemicals can enter the body if they come in contact with body openings such as the eyes or cuts on the hands. You can protect yourself by wearing the proper personal protective equipment, such as gloves and eye protection.
Corrosive can seriously damage the skin upon contact, mucous membranes and lungs if inhaled, or the gastrointestinal tract and stomach if ingested.
Explosive is a chemical that causes a sudden release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure or high temperature. Example: Acetaldehyde when heated to high temperatures.
Flammable Liquid defined as a liquid with a flash point below 100 degrees F. Flammable liquids are: Class 1 Liquids and may be subdivided as follows:
·Class 1A – Flash point below 73 degrees F and boiling point below 100 degrees F.
·Class 1B – Flash point below 73 degrees F and boiling point at or above 100 degrees F.
·Class 1C – Flash point at or above 73 degrees F and below 100 degrees F.
Hemotoxin causes damage to blood cells or bone marrow.
Hepatotoxin causes damage to the liver.
Highly Toxic is a chemical in any of the following categories:
·A chemical with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats between 200 and 300 grams each.
·A chemical with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
·A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume, or dust when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Irritant can cause inflammation of tissue at point of contact, including bronchitis or other lung damage if inhaled.
Nephrotoxin can cause damage to the kidneys.
Neurotoxin can cause damage to the nervous system. The nervous system is especially sensitive to organometallic compounds and certain sulfide compounds.
Oxidizer is a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, causing fire either by itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.
Pyrophoric is a chemical that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 13F (54.4C) or below.
Reproductive Toxin is a chemical that can affect the ability to have children.
Sensitizer can cause allergic reactions after repeated exposures. The reaction may be as mild as a rash (contact dermatitis) or as serious as anaphylactic shock.
Silicosis is a disabling, nonreversible and sometimes fatal lung disease caused by overexposure to respirable crystalline silica. Silica is the second most common mineral in the earth’s crust and is a major component of sand, rock, and mineral ores. Overexposure to dust that contains microscopic particles of crystalline silica can cause scar tissue to form in the lungs, which reduces the lungs’ ability to extract oxygen from the air we breathe. Typical sand found at the beach does not pose a silicosis threat.
Through the Digestive System is when a person is sprayed or splashed with a chemical; this can force the chemical into the mouth. You can accidentally swallow a chemical if it comes in contact with food or drinks in the work area. This can happen if the chemical is splashed or spilled onto your food or the work area, or if the chemical is on your hands when you touch your food. This is why food and drinks should never be stored or eaten in areas where chemicals are present. This is also the reason that cosmetics should never be applied in areas where chemicals are present.
Through the Lungs occurs when chemicals that give off fumes and vapors can enter the lungs when you breathe in through the nose and throat. The substance passes through to the lungs where it enters the blood system via the alveoli. The alveoli are millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs that exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide in the blood.
Through the Skin occurs because some chemicals, such as toxins, acids, allergens, sensitizers and others, can be absorbed through the skin. Irritated or broken skin is extremely vulnerable to chemicals that can penetrate the skin.
Toxic is a chemical falling within any of the following categories:
·A chemical with a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
·A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between two and three kilograms each.
·A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than two milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Unstable or Reactive is a chemical that, in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.
Water Reactive is a material that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.